Botox Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA) is an injectable neuro-toxin used for reducing frown lines in adults 65 years of age or younger. Side effects of Botox Cosmetic include allergic reactions, rash, itching, headache, neck or back pain, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain, loss of appetite, muscle weakness where the medicine was injected, injection site reactions (bruising, bleeding, pain, redness, swelling, or tenderness), muscle stiffness, fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, flu symptoms, dizziness, drowsiness, tired feeling, dry mouth, dry eyes, ringing in your ears, increased sweating in areas other than the underarms, itchy or watery eyes, increased sensitivity to lights, or eyelid swelling or bruising.

Yes. Cosmetic (Allergan), Botox® (Allergan) and Dysport® (Ipsen) are both derived from botulinum toxin Type A. Myobloc® (Solstice Neurosciences) is derived from botulinum Type B. The Botox® product is the only one of its type with over 10 years of success in treating patients with a variety of conditions. Botox® Cosmetic has a dosing specific for the treatment of frown lines.

The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo attempted to use aerosolized botulinum toxin in Japanese cities on at least three occasions between 1990 and 1995. The C botulinum used in these attempts was collected from soil in northern Japan. These attacks failed because of faulty microbiological technique, deficient aerosol-generating equipment, or internal sabotage ( Arnon 2001 ).

Occasionally, unusual food preparation methods (particularly for home-prepared products) can lead to botulism. For example, an outbreak in Turkey (eastern Anatolia) in 2005 was associated with eating suzme (yogurt buried under soil) ( Akdeniz 2007 ). Outbreaks of botulism in prisons have been attributed to drinking pruno (an alcoholic beverage concocted by prisoners from food scraps such as potato peelings and apples that are allowed to ferment unrefrigerated) ( Vugia 2009 ).

Tell your doctor if you have received any other botulinum toxin product in the last 4 months; have received injections of botulinum toxin such as Myobloc®, Dysport®, or Xeomin® in the past (tell your doctor exactly which product you received); have recently received an antibiotic injection; take muscle relaxants; take allergy or cold medicines; take sleep medicine; take aspirin-like products or blood thinners.

Still, there is much we do not know about botulinum neurotoxin, and we are in the phase where its use as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent is in much demand. Areas of investigation include long-term effects, optimal treatment regimens, and reasons for treatment failure. Nevertheless, many efforts have been made to understand its structure, function and biochemical properties and pharmacological actions to improve its therapeutic uses for various neuromuscular disorders.botulinum toxin treatment

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